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The Green(er) Fuel Protocol, reviews fuel choices in a broader, holistic manner. This includes looking at environmental, social, and economic factors.

It has been a profound pleasure, an education in sustainability, and a hallmark of teamwork and communication to work with the many expert contributors to this Report on Energy Crop Options. My sincerest thanks are offered to the many...

Talk Outline

  • Cement 101
  • Accomplishments to date
  • Cement 2020
  • Local solutions

GOAL: Improvements in all areas of sustainability

  • Economic
  • Environmental
  • Social
  • Technical

CO2 results from the complete oxidation of carbon containing compounds

  • CH4 +2O2 →CO2 +2H2O 
  • C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O


  • What is source of metals?
  • Where do metals end up?
  • The Three “T”s (and Oxygen)
  • Temperature
    • 1000 C minimum for Incinerators
    • Typical for a 10x faster reaction for every 30-60 C increase in temperature
  • Time
    • 1 second minimum for Incinerators...

In this session, we’ll cover:

  • What are Dioxins and Furans (D/F)?
  • Why should I be concerned?
  • How are they formed in a cement kiln?
  • How can they be minimized?

Condensible particulate matter - CPMTotal particulate matter (all sizes).PM10 – particulate matter less than 10 microns in diameter – driven by health effects.PM2.5 – particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter – formed by nucleation of...


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