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For centuries, the world has been fueled by traditional energy sources such as wood, coal, and oil. But in recent decades, governments, scientists, environmental organizations and industry have started to explore new energy sources for the future.

It has been a profound pleasure, an education in sustainability, and a hallmark of teamwork and communication to work with the many expert contributors to this Report on Energy Crop Options. My sincerest thanks are offered to the many...

Talk Outline

  • Cement 101
  • Accomplishments to date
  • Cement 2020
  • Local solutions

GOAL: Improvements in all areas of sustainability

  • Economic
  • Environmental
  • Social
  • Technical

CO2 results from the complete oxidation of carbon containing compounds

  • CH4 +2O2 →CO2 +2H2O 
  • C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O


  • What is source of metals?
  • Where do metals end up?
  • The Three “T”s (and Oxygen)
  • Temperature
    • 1000 C minimum for Incinerators
    • Typical for a 10x faster reaction for every 30-60 C increase in temperature
  • Time
    • 1 second minimum for Incinerators...

In this session, we’ll cover:

  • What are Dioxins and Furans (D/F)?
  • Why should I be concerned?
  • How are they formed in a cement kiln?
  • How can they be minimized?

Condensible particulate matter - CPMTotal particulate matter (all sizes).PM10 – particulate matter less than 10 microns in diameter – driven by health effects.PM2.5 – particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter – formed by nucleation of...


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