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Appendix H - Life Cycle Assessment of LCFs

Cement industry is a carbon-and-energy intensive sector which represents approximately 1.4% of the national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Canada. A viable way to reduce GHGs is to replace fossil fuels with low carbon fuels (LCFs) which are cleaner, greener, and more sustainable. An Excel-based consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) model was built in this study to evaluate the overall GHG emissions with four types of LCFs (e.g. construction and demolition (C&D) wood waste, asphalt shingles, railway ties, and plastics) in the cement industry, to produce 1 metric tonne (t) of clinker. This model has included all GHG emission sources, such as the kiln process, production and transportation of raw materials and fuels, and electricity production. The model used Lafarge Cement’s Bath, Ontario plant as a case study, and all process parameters (including process configuration, electricity and energy mix, and transportation distances) are dictated by this choice. 

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